IEEE Std C37.48-1997 covers in detail the application guidelines for high-voltage external capacitor fuses.
The energy stored in the healthy capacitors of one series group of parallel-connected capacitors will discharge into the failed capacitor unit of that group and its fuse. The fuse shall be able to interrupt the energy supplied by the parallel group of capacitor units when they are charged to their peak voltage.
If the capacitor bank design has an available discharge energy higher than the capacitor units or expulsion fuses can withstand, current-limiting fuses with adequate energy rating should be considered. When ungrounded wye capacitor banks are supplied in an enclosure, current-limiting fuses shall be used to eliminate the arc products that occur with the use of an expulsion fuse.
These arc products in the confined enclosure could cause further evolution of the fault. Current-limiting fuses may also be required on enclosed single-group ungrounded wye banks that are designed with two bushing units. In this design, the first bushing is used for the phase connection, the second bushing used for the neutral connection, and the case connected to ground.
This arrangement requires the capacitor fuses to interrupt system fault current in the event of a failure of the unit insulation near the phase bushing. NEMA CP1-1988 [B11] suggests a parallel energy limit of 15 kJ (4650 kvar) for all film dielectric capacitors.
Expulsion fuses are frequently applied with higher parallel energy (to 30 kJ) (Mendis et al. [B9]). This higher energy application is acceptable if the total available discharge energy of the bank does not exceed the discharge energy rating of the fuse or the capability of the faulted capacitor unit.
To determine proper fuse selection, the capacitor unit case rupture curve shall be available from the manufacturer.
Case rupture curves are different for different capacitor unit constructions and designs. The total clearing curve of the fuse or fuse link is then compared to the case rupture curve; adequate protection is assured if the total clearing curve of the fuse is to the left of and below the rupture curve of the capacitor unit.
Other important considerations for external fuse selection and operation include the following:
— Fuses should be designed and rated for the externally fused capacitor bank application.
— Fuses should provide for the fast isolation of a faulted capacitor unit.
— Voltage interruption capability of the fuse shall be coordinated with the voltage withstand capability of the capacitor unit.
— Fuses shall handle the transient inrush and outrush current.
— Fuses shall be designed for the current loadability requirements, including harmonics and adequate allowance factors.
— Fuses shall be designed for the inductive and capacitive current interruption capability.
— Fuse characteristics shall coordinate between the different shunt bank protection schemes and the characteristics of the fuses (that is, expulsion, current-limiting, or a combination of both).