Ground Rods.
Vertically driven ground rods or pipes are the most common type of made electrode. Rods or pipes are generally used where bedrock is beyond a depth of 3 meters (10 feet). Ground rods are commercially manufactured in 1.27, 1.59, 1.90 and 2.54 cm (1/2, 5/8, 3/4 and 1 inch) diameters and in lengths from 1.5 to 12 meters (5 to 40 feet).

For most applications, ground rods of 1.90 cm (3/4 inch) diameter, and length of 3.0 meters (10 feet), are used. Copper-clad steel ground rods are required because the steel core provides the strength to withstand the driving force and the copper provides corrosion protection and is compatible with copper or copper-clad interconnecting cables.

Buried Horizontal Conductors.
Where bedrock is near the surface of the earth, the use of driven rods is unpractical. In such cases, horizontal strips of metal, solid wires, or stranded cables buried 0.48 to 0.86 meters (18 to 36 inches) deep may be used effectively.

With long strips, reactance increases as a factor of the length with a consequent increase in impedance. A low impedance is desirable for minimizing lightning surge voltages. Therefore, several wires, strips, or cables arranged in a star pattern, with the facility at the center, is preferable to one long length of conductor.

Grid systems, consisting of copper cables buried about 15.24 cm (6 inches) in the ground and forming a network of squares, are used to provide equipotential areas throughout the facility area. Such a system usually extends over the entire area.

The spacing of the conductors, subject to variation according to requirements of the installation, may normally be 0.6 to 1.2 meters (2 to 4 feet) between cables. The cables must be bonded together at each crossover.

Grids are generally required only in antenna farms or substation yards and other areas where very high fault currents are likely to flow into the earth and hazardous step potentials may exist or soil conditions prohibit installation of other ground systems.

Antenna counterpoise systems shall be installed in accordance with guidance requirements of the manufacturer.

Rectangular or circular plate electrodes should present a minimum of 0.09 square meters (2 square feet) of surface contact with the soil. Iron or steel plates should be at least 0.64 cm (1/4 inch) thick and nonferrous metals should be at least 0.15 cm (0.06 inches) thick.

A burial depth of 1.5 to 2.4 meters (5 to 8 feet) below grade should be maintained. This system is considered very expensive for the value produced and generally not recommended.

Metal Frameworks of Buildings.
The metal frameworks of buildings may exhibit less than 10 ohms, depending upon the size of the building, the type of footing, and particular location. Buildings that rest on steel pilings in particular may exhibit connection to earth.

For this low resistance to be used advantageously, it is necessary framework be bonded together. a resistance to earth of the type of subsoil at a a very low resistance that all elements of the framework bonded together.

Water Pipes.
Metal underground pipes have traditionally been relied upon for grounding electrodes. The resistance to earth provided by piping systems is usually quite low because of the extensive contact made with soil.

Municipal water systems in particular establish contact with the soil over wide areas. For water pipes to be effective, any possible discontinuities must be bridged with bonding jumpers. The NEC requires that any water metering equipment and service unions be bypassed with a jumper not less than that required for the grounding connector.

However, stray or fault currents flowing through the piping network into the earth can present a hazard to workmen making repairs or modifications to the water system. For example, if the pipes supplying a building are disconnected from the utility system for any reason, that portion connected to the building can rise to a hazardous voltage level relative to the rest of the piping system and possibly with respect to the earth.

In particular, if the resistance that is in contact with the soil near the building happens to be high, a break in the pipe at even some distance from the building may pose a hazardous condition to unsuspecting workmen.

Some water utilities are inserting non-conductive couplings in the water mains at the point of entrance to buildings to prevent such possibilities.

For these reasons, the water system should not be relied upon as a safe and dependable earth electrode for a facility and should be supplemented with at least one other ground system.

Incidental Metals.
There may be a number of incidental, buried , metallic objects in the vicinity of the earth electrode subsystem. These objects should be connected to the system to reduce the danger of potential differences during lightning or power fault conditions: their connection will also reduce the resistance to earth of the earth electrode subsystem. Such additions to the earth electrode subsystem should include the rebar in concrete footings, buried tanks, and piping.

Well Casings.
Well casing can offer a low resistance contact with the earth. In some areas, steel pipe used for casing in wells can be used as a ground electrode. Where wells are located on or near a site, the resistance to earth of the casing should be measured and, if below 10 ohms, the well casing can be considered for use as a ground electrode.

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