TYPES OF FUEL CELLS BASICS AND TUTORIALS

The electrolyte defines the key properties, particularly the operating temperature, of the fuel cell. Consequently, fuel cells are classified based on the types of electrolyte used as described below.

1. Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)
2. Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC)
3. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC)
4. Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC)
5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)

These fuel cells operate at different temperatures and each is best suited to particular applications.

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)
The PEM cell is one in a family of fuel cells that are in various stages of development. It is being considered as an alternative power source for automotive application for electric vehicles.

The electrolyte in a PEM cell is a type of polymer and is usually referred to as a membrane, hence the name. Polymer electrolyte membranes are somewhat unusual electrolytes in that, in the presence of water, which the membrane readily absorbs, the negative ions are rigidly held within their structure.

Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC)
Phosphoric acid technology has moved from the laboratory research and development to the first stages of commercial application. Turnkey 200-kW plants are now available and have been installed at more than 70 sites in the U.S., Japan, and Europe. Operating at about 2008C, the PAFC plant also produces
heat for domestic hot water and space heating, and its electrical efficiency approaches 40%.

The principal obstacle against widespread commercial acceptance is cost. Capital costs of about $2500 to$4000=kW must be reduced to $1000 to $1500=kW if the technology is to be accepted in the electric power markets.

Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC)
Molten carbonate technology is attractive because it offers several potential advantages over PAFC. Carbon monoxide, which poisons the PAFC, is indirectly used as a fuel in the MCFC. The higher operating temperature of approximately 6508C makes the MCFC a better candidate for combined cycle applications whereby the fuel cell exhaust can be used as input to the intake of a gas turbine or the boiler of a steam turbine.

The total thermal efficiency can approach 85%. This technology is at the stage of prototype commercial demonstrations and is estimated to enter the commercial market by 2003 using natural gas, and by 2010 with gas made from coal. Capital costs are expected to be lower than PAFC. MCFCs are now being tested in full-scale demonstration plants.

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)
A solid oxide fuel cell is currently being demonstrated at a 100-kW plant. Solid oxide technology requires very significant changes in the structure of the cell. As the name implies, the SOFC uses a solid electrolyte, a ceramic material, so the electrolyte does not need to be replenished during the operational life of the cell.

This simplifies design, operation, and maintenance, as well as having the potential to reduce costs. This offers the stability and reliability of all solid-state construction and allows higher temperature operation.

The ceramic make-up of the cell lends itself to cost-effective fabrication techniques. The tolerance to impure fuel streams make SOFC systems especially attractive for utilizing H2 and CO from natural gas steam-reforming and coal gasification plants.

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