Wake-induced oscillation is limited to lines having bundled conductors and results from aerodynamic forces on the downstream conductor of the bundle as it moves in and out of the wake of the upstream conductor.

Wake-induced oscillation is controlled by maintaining sufficiently large conductor spacing in the bundle, unequal subspan lengths, and tilting the bundles.

Bundled conductors are subject to wake-induced oscillations with amplitudes and frequencies typically between that of eolian vibration and galloping. The frequencies of oscillation are normally in the range of 1 to 10 Hz, and the amplitudes are in the range of 10 conductor diameters.

The modes in which such vibration occurs are considerably more complex than the modes exhibited during either galloping or the almost invisible eolian vibrations. The source of wind energy for wake-induced oscillation is, as the name suggests, the wake from the windward conductor of the bundle which causes the motion of the downwind conductor.

There are three basic approaches to the control of wake-induced oscillation. Two involve reducing the input of wind energy, and the third involves detuning the mechanical bundle system to prevent resonance.

The methods based on reducing wind energy input to the bundle are bundle tilting and bundle sizing. By tilting the bundle to angles of 20 or more, the downwind conductors are moved to the edge of the upwind conductor’s wake and the energy input is reduced.

By keeping the subconductor spacing to the order of 20 times the conductor diameter, the wind energy input to the windward conductor is reduced by being moved to a wake region of reduced intensity.

The third commonly used method to control or eliminate wake-induced oscillations is to stagger the length or simply to shorten the average subspan length. This method does not control those oscillations where the bundle moves as a rigid body and is somewhat dependent on the mechanical characteristics of the spacers.

In comparison to the damage that can result from eolian vibration or galloping, field reports of wake-induced oscillation damage are usually of a minor nature, primarily conductor abrasion from clashing and spacer breakage, neither of which normally results in system outages.

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