POWER TRANSMISSION LINE TYPES OF SUPPORT STRUCTURES BASIC AND TUTORIALS

Numerous types of structure are used for supporting transmission line conductors, for example, self-supporting steel towers, guyed steel towers, self-supporting aluminum towers, guyed aluminum towers, self-supporting steel poles, flexible and semiflexible steel towers and poles, rope suspension, wood poles, wood H frames, and concrete poles.

The type of supporting structure to use depends on such factors as the location of the line, importance of the line, desired life of the line, money available for initial investment, cost of maintenance, and availability of material.

Because of the wide conductor spacing required for electrical clearances and insulation, the high tensile stresses used in conductors and ground cables to pull these cables up to a sag which will keep the heights of the structures within reason, the long spans necessary for crossing ravines in mountainous country, and the reliance to be placed on a major trunk line, lines exceeding 345 kV are frequently built of self-supporting steel towers although guyed and rope-suspension structures are increasingly applied.

A line built with self-supporting steel towers is very satisfactory in all respects, as it requires less inspection and has a maximum life with minimum maintenance costs. However, high-strength aluminum-alloy towers are available, and their use is on the increase.

They have the advantage of better resistance to corrosive atmospheres than steel.74 The structural configurations and design details are the same as with steel, with the added problem of greater deflections when stresses are applied owing to the lower modulus of elasticity of aluminum.

The effect of long-time creep of aluminum is yet to be determined. Self-supporting steel poles are frequently used in congested districts where right-of-way is limited and short spans are necessary. The advent of EHV has brought a great variety of new structural configurations.

Details of some of these have been published. Electrical World, Nov.15, 1965, pp. 95–118, contains outline drawings of 35 towers and six wood-pole H-frame structures as applied to EHV, as well as a tabulation of specification items of EHV lines in the United States and Canada. The Transmission Line Reference Book, 345 kV and Above, 2d ed., 1982, published by EPRI,3 contains details of a broad spectrum of 345 through 800-kV structures.

Wood poles are used extensively where they are readily available. Medium- and lower-voltage lines can be built economically with such poles fitted with either steel or wood crossarms. Wood H frames composed of two poles tied together at the top with wood or steel crossarms have been successfully used for the higher-voltage lines up to 345 kV. To take full advantage of the transverse strength, such poles can be braced internally for at least a portion of their height with wood X bracing.

Concrete poles have been used in some parts of the world where timber is scarce and where the ingredients for making concrete are readily obtainable. Another advantage is that they are impervious to insect damage and other forms of decay prevalent with wood structures in tropical or subtropical climates.

They are generally cast in units, by using standard forms, and transported to the site, although they may be manufactured where used. Concrete poles should always have sufficient prestressed steel reinforcement to take care of the bending stresses due to wind loads, pulls from cables, and the like, in addition to being designed as columns under vertical loads. In all structures conductor configuration and the effect of various forces which may act upon them must be taken into
account.

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