Insulator Washing
Another common practice is to utilize helicopters for insulator washing. Again, this is a method that allows for the line to remain energized during the process.

The helicopter carries a water tank that is refilled at a staging area near the work location. A hose and nozzle are attached to a structure on the helicopter and are operated by a qualified line worker who directs the water spray and adequately cleans the insulator string.

Again, with the ease of access afforded by the helicopter, the speed of this operation can result in a typical three-phase tower being cleaned in a few minutes.

Helicopters are invaluable for tower line and structure inspections. Due to the ease of the practice and the large number of inspections that can be accomplished, utilities have increased the amount of maintenance inspections being done, thus promoting system reliability.

Helicopters typically carry qualified line workers who utilize stabilizing binoculars to visually inspect the transmission tower for signs of rusting or weakness and the transmission hardware and conductor for damage and potential failure.

Infrared inspections and photographic imaging can also be accomplished from the helicopter, either by mounting the cameras on the helicopter or through direct use by the crew. During these inspections, the helicopter provides a comfortable situation for accomplishing the necessary recording of specific information, tower locations, etc.

In addition, inspections from helicopters are required following a catastrophic event or system failure. It is the only logical method of quickly inspecting a transmission system for the exact location and extent of damage.

Helicopter Method Considerations
The ability to safely position a helicopter and worker at the actual work site is the most critical consideration when deciding if a helicopter method can be utilized for construction or maintenance. The terrain and weather conditions are obvious factors, as well as the physical spacing needed to position the helicopter and worker in the proximity required for the work method.

If live-line work methods are to be utilized, the minimum approach distance required for energized line work must be calculated very carefully for every situation. The geometry of each work structure, the geometry of the individual helicopter, and the positioning of the helicopter and worker for the specific work method must be analyzed. There are calculations that are available to analyze the approach distances (IEEE Task Force, 1999).

When choosing between construction and maintenance work methods, the safety of the line workers is the first consideration. Depending on circumstances, a helicopter method may be the safest work method. Terrain has always been a primary reason for choosing helicopters to assist with projects since the ability to drive to each work site may not be possible.

However, helicopters may still be the easiest and most economic alternative when the terrain is open and flat, especially when there are many individual tower locations that will be contacted. Although helicopters may seem to be expensive on a per person basis, the ability to quickly position workers and easily move material can drastically reduce costs.

When live-line methods can be utilized, the positioning of workers, material, and equipment becomes comparatively easier.

Finally, if the safe use of the helicopter allows the transmission systems to remain energized throughout the project, the helicopter may be the only possible alternative. Since the transmission system is a major link in the competitive energy markets, transmission operation will have reliability performance measures which must be achieved.

Purchasing replacement energy through alternate transmission paths, as was done in the regulated world, is no longer an option. Transmission system managers are required to keep systems operational and will be fined if high levels of performance are not attained. The option of deenergizing systems for maintenance practices may be too costly in the deregulated world.

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