All harmonic sources are referred to as nonlinear loads
because they draw non-sinusoidal currents when a sinusoidal voltage is applied.
The non-sinusoidal current may be due to the inherent characteristic of the
load (e.g., arc furnaces), or due to a switching circuit (e.g., a 6-pulse
converter that forces conduction of currents for only certain periods).

In industrial and commercial power systems there may be many
such harmonic sources distributed

throughout the system. The harmonic study requires knowledge
of the harmonic currents generated by nonlinear loads.

There are three options open to the analytical engineer:

a) Measure the generated harmonics at each source,

b) Calculate the generated harmonics by a mathematical
analysis where possible, such as at converters or static var compensators, and

c) Use typical values based on similar applications or
published data.

In practice, all three methods are used and provide
reasonable results. Since the system configuration and load continually change,
the harmonics also change and it would be a formidable task to study all such
conditions.

Usually, the worst operating condition is determined, and
the design is based on the “worst-generated” harmonics. However, It needs to be
recognized that even with the “worst generated” harmonic case, the harmonic
flows within different elements of the network can be different depending upon
the number of transformers or tie breakers in service.

This necessitates that for the “worst generated” case, the
“worst operating cases(s)” must be analyzed.

One other difficulty in the analysis arises from the fact
that when multiple harmonic sources are connected to the same bus (or different
buses), the phase angles between the harmonics of the same order are usually
not known.

This, generally speaking, leads to arithmetic addition of
harmonic magnitudes, which may be reasonable if the harmonic sources are
similar and have similar operating load points. However, this approach can lead
to a more conservative filter design and distortion calculations, if the
sources are different or operate at different load points.

Determination of phase angles of harmonics and vectorial
addition can be quite a complex and expensive approach for general industrial
application. This is often resolved by simplifying assumptions based on
experience or by field measurements.

More advanced techniques are used in high-voltage dc
transmission and other utility applications where accuracy is important.

Industrial harmonic studies are usually represented on a
single-phase basis, i.e., based on the assumption that the system is balanced
and positive sequence analysis applies. A three-phase study is warranted only
if the system or the load is severely unbalanced or a four-wire system with
single-phase loads exist.

In such a situation it will be very desirable to determine
the harmonics generated in all three phases. If the harmonic generation is
assumed to be balanced and the system is considered unbalanced, a three-phase
study may not serve the full purpose.

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