ANSI=IEEE Std 80-1986: IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding
Presents essential guidelines for assuring safety through proper grounding at AC substations at all voltage levels. Provides design criteria to establish safe limits for potential differences within a station, under fault conditions, between possible points of contact. Uses a step-by-step format to describe test methods, design and testing of grounding systems. Provides English translations of three fundamental papers on grounding by Rudenberg, Laurent, and Zeitschrift that are not available in Std 80-2000.
ANSI=IEEE Std 80-2000: IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding
Provides an improved methodology for interpreting two-layer soil resistivity and using the values in the design of AC substations. Provides methods for determining the maximum grid current at substations,= some of which also predict the maximum fault currents available on lines close by. Provides a number of new worked-examples in appendices.
IEEE Std 81-1983: IEEE Guide for Measuring Earth Resistivity, Ground Impedance, and Earth Surface Potentials of a Ground System
The present state of the technique of measuring ground resistance and impedance, earth resistivity, and potential gradients from currents in the earth, and the prediction of the magnitude of ground resistance and potential gradients from scale-model tests are described and discussed. Factors influencing the choice of instruments and the techniques for various types of measurements are covered. These include the purpose of the measurement, the accuracy required, the type of instruments available possible sources of error, and the nature of the ground or grounding system under test. The intent is to assist the engineer or technician in obtaining and interpreting accurate, reliable data. The test procedures described promote the safety of personnel and property and prevent interference with the operation of neighboring facilities. The standard is under revision as of September 2005.
IEEE Std 81.2-1991: IEEE Guide for Measurement of Impedance and Safety Characteristics of Large, Extended, or Interconnected Grounding Systems
Practical instrumentation methods are presented for measuring the AC characteristics of large, extended, or interconnected grounding systems. Measurements of impedance to remote earth, step and touch potentials, and current distributions are covered for grounding systems ranging in complexity from small grids (less than 900 m2) with only a few connected overhead or direct-burial bare concentric neutrals, to large grids (greater than 20,000 m2) with many connected neutrals, overhead ground wires (sky wires), counterpoises, grid tie conductors, cable shields, and metallic pipes. This standard addresses measurement safety; earth-return mutual errors; low-current measurements; power-system staged faults; communication and control cable transfer impedance; current distribution (current splits) in the grounding system; step, touch, mesh, and profile measurements; the foot-equivalent electrode earth resistance; and instrumentation characteristics and limitations.
IEEE Std 367-1996: IEEE Recommended Practice for Determining the Electric Power Station Ground Potential Rise and Induced Voltage from a Power Fault
Information for the determination of the appropriate values of fault-produced power station ground potential rise (GPR) and induction for use in the design of protection systems is provided. Included are the determination of the appropriate value of fault current to be used in the GPR calculation; taking into account the waveform, probability, and duration of the fault current; the determination of inducing currents, the mutual impedance between power and telephone facilities, and shield factors; the vectorial summation of GPR and induction; considerations regarding the power station GPR zone of influence; and communications channel time requirements for noninterruptible services. Guidance for the calculation of power station GPR and longitudinal induction (LI) voltages is provided, as well as guidance for their appropriate reduction from worst-case values, for use in metallic telecommunication protection design.
IEEE Std 524a-1993: IEEE Guide to Grounding During the Installation of Overhead Transmission Line Conductors—Supplement to IEEE Guide to the Installation of Overhead Transmission Line Conductors
General recommendations for the selection of methods and equipment found to be effective and practical for grounding during the stringing of overhead transmission line conductors and overhead ground wires are provided. The guide is directed to transmission voltages only. The aim is to present in one document sufficient details of present day grounding practices and equipment used in effective grounding and to provide electrical theory and considerations necessary to safeguard personnel during the stringing operations of transmission lines.
IEEE Std 789-1988 (R1994): IEEE Standard Performance Requirements for Communications and Control Cables for Application in High-Voltage Environments
Requirements are set forth for wires and cables used principally for power system communications and control purposes that are located within electric power stations, installed within the zone of influence of the power station GPR, or buried adjacent to electric power transmission and distribution lines. The cables can be subjected to high voltages either by conduction or induction coupling, or both. Cable specifications that ensure overall reliability in high-voltage environments are provided. Environmental considerations, operating service conditions, installation practices, and cable-design requirements are covered. Design tests, routine production tests, and physical and electrical tests are included.
IEEE Std 837-1989 (R1996): IEEE Standard for Qualifying Permanent Connections Used in Substation Grounding
Directions and methods for qualifying permanent connections used for substation grounding are provided. Particular attention is given to the connectors used within the grid system, connectors used to join ground leads to the grid system, and connectors used to join the ground leads to equipment and structures. The purpose is to give assurance to the user that connectors meeting the requirements of this standard will perform in a satisfactory manner over the lifetime of the installation provided, that the proper connectors are selected for the application, and that they are installed correctly. Parameters for testing grounding connections on aluminum, copper, steel, copper-clad steel, galvanized steel, stainless steel, and stainless-clad steel are addressed. Performance criteria are established, test procedures are provided, and mechanical, current–temperature cycling, freeze–thaw, corrosion, and fault-current tests are specified.
IEEE Std 1048-1990: IEEE Guide for Protective Grounding of Power Lines
Guidelines are provided for safe protective grounding methods for persons engaged in de-energized overhead transmission and distribution line maintenance. They comprise state-of-the-art information on protective grounding as currently practiced by power utilities in North America. The principles of protective grounding are discussed. Grounding practices and equipment, power-line construction, and ground electrodes are covered.
IEEE Std 1050-1996: IEEE Guide for Instrumentation and Control Equipment Grounding in Generating Stations
Information about grounding methods for generating station instrumentation and control (I & C) equipment is provided. The identification of I & C equipment grounding methods to achieve both a suitable level of protection for personnel and equipment is included, as well as suitable noise immunity for signal ground references in generating stations. Both ideal theoretical methods and accepted practices in the electric utility industry are presented.
IEEE Std 1243-1997: IEEE Guide for Improving the Lightning Performance of Transmission Lines
Procedures for evaluating the lightning outage rate of overhead transmission lines at voltage levels of 69 kV or higher are described. Effects of improved insulation, shielding, coupling and grounding on backflashover, and shielding failure rates are then discussed.
IEEE Std 1313.1-1996: IEEE Standard for Insulation Coordination— Definitions, Principles, and Rules
The procedure for selection of the withstand voltages for equipment phase-to-ground and phase to phase insulation systems is specified. A list of standard insulation levels, based on the voltage stress to which the equipment is being exposed, is also identified. This standard applies to three-phase AC systems above 1 kV.
IEEE Std 1410-2004: IEEE Guide for Improving the Lightning Performance of Distribution LinesProcedures for evaluating the lightning outage rate of overhead distribution lines at voltage levels below 69 kVare described. Effects of improved insulation, shielding, coupling and grounding for direct strokes, and induced over-voltage are then discussed.