CONTROL SYSTEM CIRCUIT BASICS AND TUTORIALS

A control circuit is for the automatic control of equipment, for safety interlocking, and sequencing the operations of the plant equipment and machines.

Control circuits hardware consists of relay contacts, wires, hardware timers, and counters, relay coils, etc. These consist of input contacts representing various conditions; the output coils are energized or de-energized depending on the input conditions represented by the control circuit.

Input contacts represent the binary state of the condition:
• True or false
• On or off.

There are two types of contacts NO (normally open) and NC (normally closed).
• Input contact: These are contacts of relays, contactors, timers, counter, field instrument switches, pressure switches, limit switches, etc.
• Output coil: These have two states – On or Off. Output coil can be auxiliary contactor or Main contactor coil.

A few simple control circuits are shown in figure below to represent logical AND, OR, and such conditions.


1. ‘AND’ operation circuit
Figure 2.3(a) shows a simple control circuit (AND operation) with two input contacts (NO) representing two conditions that must be true to complete the circuit to switch on the output relay coil and change the state of output from ‘Off’ to ‘On’.

2. ‘OR’ operation circuit
Figure 2.3(b) shows a circuit with three input contacts (NO) representing that at least one of the three conditions should be true to complete the circuit to switch On the relay coil and change output state from ‘Off’ to ‘On’.

3. ‘AND with OR’ operation circuit
Figure 2.3(c) shows a control circuit, consisting of a combination of AND and OR operations.

There are two parallel (OR condition) paths with two input contacts (NO) connected in series in each path representing AND conditions.

The path for coil K3 will be completed when one of the path conditions comes true. The circuit then will switch ‘On’ the relay coil and change the output state from ‘Off’ to ‘On’.

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