There are many types of 3 phase motors but by far the most common is the induction motor. It is quite useful to be able to test them for serviceability.
Before carrying out electrical tests it is a good idea to ensure that the rotor turns freely. This may involve disconnecting any mechanical loads. The rotor should rotate easily and you should not be able to hear any rumbling from the motor bearings.
Next, if the motor has a fan on the outside of it, check that it is clear of any debris which may have been sucked in to it. Also check that any air vents into the motor are not blocked.
Generally, if the motor windings are burnt out there will be an unmistakable smell of burnt varnish. However, it is still a good idea to test the windings as the smell could be from the motor being overloaded.
Three phase motors are made up of three separate windings – in the terminal box there will be six terminals as each motor winding will have two ends. The ends of the motor windings will usually be identified as W1, W2; U1, U2; or V1, V2.
The first part of the test is carried out using a low resistance ohm meter. Test each winding end to end (W1 to W2, U1 to U2 and V1 to V2). The resistance of each winding should be approximately the same and the resistance value will depend on the size of the motor.
If the resistance values are different, then the motor will not be electrically balanced and it should be sent for rewinding. If resistance values are the same, then the next test is carried out using an insulation resistance tester.
Join W1 and W2 together, U1 and U2 together and V1 and V2 together. Carry out an insulation resistance test between the joined ends, i.e. W to U then W to V and then between U and V. Then repeat the test between joined ends and the case, or the earthing terminal of the motor (these tests can be in any order to suit you).
Providing the insulation resistance is 2MΩ or greater then the motor is fine. If the insulation resistance is above 0.5MΩ this could be due to dampness and it is often a good idea to run the motor for a while before carrying out the insulation test again as the motor may dry out with use.
To reconnect the motor windings in star, join W2, U2 and V2 together and connect the 3 phase motor supply to W1, U1 and V1. If the motor rotates in the wrong direction, swap two of the phases of the motor supply.
To reconnect the motor windings in delta, join W1 to U2, U1 to V2 and V1 to W2 and then connect the 3 phase motor supply one to each of the joined ends. If the motor rotates in the wrong direction, swap two phases of the motor supply.