## LONG SPANS ON TRANSMISSION LINES TOWER SPOTTING CONSIDERATION TUTORIALS

Long Spans
Rough country may necessitate spans considerably longer than contemplated in the design and may involve a number of factors including (1) proper clearance between conductors, (2) excessive tensions under maximum load, and (3) structures adequate to carry the additional loads.

Safe horizontal clearance between conductors is often based on the National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) formula, in which the spacing a in inches is given as proportional to the square root of sag; s is in inches.

This relation was developed for, and is useful on, comparatively short span lines of the smaller conductors and for voltages up to 69 kV; but for very long spans and heavy conductors, the formula results in spacings considerably larger than have proved satisfactory.

It also results in spacings that are questionably small for very light conductors on long spans. Percy H. Thomas proposed an empirical formula which takes into account the weight of the conductor and its diameter, requiring less spacing for heavy conductors and a greater spacing for small conductors by the ratio of diameter D in inches to weight w in pounds per foot (D/w) as a means of determining the required conductor spacing for the average span of the line.

The same formula, however, may be used to examine the spacings which have been successfully used on maximum spans and a value for C selected from experience for determining the safe spacing required for an occasional unusually long span.

Excessive tensions on very long spans may be avoided by dead-ending at both ends and computing such a stringing sag as will result in the same maximum tension as elsewhere in the line. Such a span will be found to have considerably greater stringing sag and lower stringing tension than the
normal span.

Sag curves or charts are often prepared giving the sag for dead-end spans of various lengths such that the maximum tension under loaded conditions will be the same.

Dead-end construction is costly, and consideration should be given to avoiding this additional expense. It is common practice to permit spans up to double the average span without dead ends, although spans of this length may require additional spacing between wires.

A careful examination of some trial figures on the sags and tensions developed in a long span will often indicate how great a span may be carried on suspension structures. The maximum loaded tension which would occur in a long span, if this span were dead-ended and sagged to the same stringing tension as the rest of the line, compared with the maximum tension for normal span lengths, is a good indication of the necessity for dead-end construction.

In case a number of long spans are encountered in a line or section of line, it may prove more economical to reduce the tension in the entire section to the long-span values and accept an increase in sag and corresponding reduction in span length in order to avoid dead ends.