TYPES OF POWER SUBSTATION IN POWER SYSTEM TUTORIALS

Electric Power Substation is an assembly of equipment in an electric power system through which electrical energy is passed for transmission, distribution, interconnection, transformation, conversion, or switching.

Specifically, substations are used for some or all of the following:

1. Connection of generators.
2. Transmission or distribution lines and loads to each other.
3. Transformation from one voltage level to the other.
4. Interconnection of alternate sources of power.
5. Switching for alternate connections and isolation of failed or overloaded lines and equipment.

Substation Components
Power & Distribution Transformers
Switchgears
Instrument Transformers
Surge Protection Equipment
Protection Devices
Control Devices
Bus

Station Switchyard
In a generating substation where the voltage generated is transformed to high voltage for transmission. It contains the bus ducts, step-up transfomer, VTs, CTs, arresters, breakers,LAs disconnectors, bus works. The voltage could be 13.8, 23, 69, 115, 138, 230, 345, 400, 500 or 765KV.

Transmission Substation
It is an electrical substation that converts transmission voltage to transmission or sub transmission voltage.
Example: 138/69KV, 230/69KV, 230/115KV, 500/230KV

Distribution Substation
It is an electrical substation that converts the sub transmission voltage to distribution voltage.
Example: 69/23KV, 69/34.5KV, 69/13.8K, 69/4.16KV, 115/34.5KV, 138/12.47KV 

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