SUBSTATION GROUNDING TUTORIALS PDF LINKS PART 2

On this second part, I recommend you to read this wonderfully written article about substation grounding by ECM. This article would answer some of the most common questions related to grounding like step and touch potentials, and the difference between mechanical boding and exothermic welding.

Full article may be found ==> HERE

For other free ebooks, pdf, tutorials, and links about substation grounding, click on the links below:


ERICO's GROUNDING BOOK


HOW TO CONSTRUCT GROUNDING WELL

GROUNDING TECHNIQUES THAT SAVES LIFE

LEC GROUNDING MANUAL

One of the must haves in relations to substation grounding for ANSI standards followers:
Guide for Safety in Ac Substation Grounding-Standard 80-1986

SUBSTATION GROUNDING TUTORIALS PDF LINKS PART 1


Grounding is one of the most important yet most misunderstood part of power engineering. In essence, grounding is important since it is involved in the protection of both lives and equipment during abnormal condition.

If your grounding system is properly designed and installed, then most likely it will have a reliable performance. Fast clearing of faults, made possible by good grounding, improves the overall safety and reliability of an electrical system. Therefore, substation reliability must be as "built-in" as possible because of the high available fault current levels present and unlikely occurrence of follow-up grounding inspections.

With these things in mind, I am going to share to you, some of important free e-books, tutorials, links and pdf related to substation grounding. Click on the links below:

Better Grounding Techniques

Fence Grounding Reference

Ground Fault Testing

Grounding Book

Other equally interesting and important grounding references:

Guide to substation grounding and bonding for mine power systems

Guide for Safety in Ac Substation Grounding-Standard 80-1986

Connectors for Electrical Construction and Maintenance: Distribution, Substation, Grounding - Aluminum and Copper Miniature Catalog

Analysis Techniques for Power Substations Grounding Systems (Design Methodology and Tests, Volume 1)

ENTRY LEVEL and SENIOR ENGINEERING JOBS

Hello there. On this blog, i will try to compress and collect any available engineering jobs out there with emphasis on the entry level.

USA JOBS 1

USA JOBS 2

USA JOBS 3

M.E. JOBS 1

M.E. JOBS 2

M.E. JOBS 3


note: I am in no way related to these job hiring poster.

PLS POLES FREE .BAK FILE 1


PLS POLE .BAK SAMPLE FILE 2-PART INSULATOR STRUCTURE

For purpose of practice, I am giving a sample .bak file of the structure with 2-part insulators. Please do note that you may only use it as a guide in making models as some of its values were used only for illustrative purposes. You are encouraged to improved on it and do anything on it.

I do appreciate feedbacks and comments though, as well as suggestions to improve upon.

The Download link ==>> HERE

PLS CADD | PLS POLE TUTORIAL 3


HOW TO MODEL STRUCTURE WITH 2-PART INSULATORS

On this tutorial, we are to model a structure that is consisting of a steel pole, with construction made up of 2-parts insulators.
To model a steel pole, you may refer to this tutorial.  ==>> HERE
To model a two part insulator, you may refer to this tutorial. ==>>HERE

We will model the structure from a drawing to a .pol PLS-POLE file that we can use for analysis and use in PLS-CADD software as well.

Tutorial is found ==>> HERE

PLS CADD | PLS POLE TUTORIAL 2


HOW TO MODEL A 2-PART INSULATOR USING PLS-POLE

On this tutorial, we are going to create or model a braced post insulator using PLS-POLE. It is a 2-part insulator consisting of a post insulator supported by suspension insulators.


Some of the characteristics of a braced line post are:

  • It uses a traditional fixed base line post.
  • The longitudinal strength is limited to the RCL rating of the line post component.
  • It generates high tower torque (Z-direction) under longitudinal loading.
Tutorial can be downloaded ==>> HERE

LONGEST SUBMARINE COMMUNICATION CABLE


Submarine cable and the world's longest submarine cables were already discussed beforehand. One might wonder, what is the longest communication submarine cable in the world?

The distinction goes to, FLAG (Fiberoptic Link Around the Globe), the system is organized, designed and priced to compete in the rapidly growing wholesale market for international telecommunications traffic. It is the longest man-made structure ever built, stretching 28,000 kilometers (17,000 miles) from the United Kingdom to Japan and linking Europe and Asia by way of the Middle East.

FLAG can transmit more than 10 gigabits of digital information per second -- the equivalent of 600,000 simultaneous conversations -- over two fiber pairs. Further technical advances, including Wavelength Division Multiplexing, give FLAG the potential to double the capacity of most segments.

 FLAG construction was built on time (in 27 months) and within budget, at a capitalized cost of approximately $1.5 billion. And, unlike traditional cable systems, the entire FLAG system is monitored continuously from a single network operations center, which is located in the United Arab Emirates.

Complete Info May be found HERE

LONGEST SUBMARINE POWER CABLE

What is the World's Longest Submarine Power Cable

Submarine cable system is one of the most common engineering solutions when distributing power or information in areas that are bounded by bodies of water, wherein overhead system is no longer practical. (More info in here). But have you ever wonder what is the longest submarine power cable that is operating today?

SUBMARINE CABLES - TUTORIALS and REFERENCES


One of the most challenging tasks in the effort to distribute power, is to transmit when the area is bounded by bodies of water. Examples of this are island states or countries, and their connection to the power grid, as to support their island mode generating capacities.

Under normal circumstances, long distances and the presence of water beneath limits the practicality of putting overhead lines for the purpose. Thus, most of the time, engineers and builders turn to submarine cables.

Submarine cables are cables that are laid beneath the sea, or any bodies of water to carry or transmit energy, data or both. It can be classified into Submarine Communication Cables or Submarine Power Cables.

Typical cross section of a submarine cable is wonderfully illustrated by this picture courtesy of http://www.mutual-energy.com/The_Moyle_Interconnector/History_and_Development_of_the_Interconnector.php
For more on submarine cables, check and click on these highly recommended free tutorials, free links, and submarine cables pdf:


You may also check this equally interesting links:




George Simon Ohm - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING HERO

FREE GEORGE SIMON OHM REFERENCES | FREE OHM'S LAW TUTORIALS

George Simon Ohm, the man behind the ohm's law is today's EE hero. The unit of resistance (electrical) is named after this man.

Georg Simon Ohm was born in Erlangen, Bavaria, on March 16, 1787. He first published the theory behind ohm's law in the book, Die galvanische Kette Mathematisch Bearbeitet. He may have died in 1954, but his works, and the ohm's law itself is mentioned and is being applied everyday.

Everyone who is into Electricity and Electrical Engineering knows how important Ohm's law is. It is the single mathematical equation that describes the basic relationship of electricity and its elements. At its purest form, it is composed of only three figures; V=IR. It means that, the current flowing in the medium is directly proportional to the voltage and is inversely proportional to the resistance. Ohm's Law (V=IR) is as basic to the study of electronics, as Newton's Law (F=mA) is to classical physics. For that, we need to thank Geroge Simon Ohm.

Yet, its beginning is somehow far from easy. In fact, early scientists, his colleagues apparently dismissed his work, causing him both poverty and humiliation. During his time, the approach to physics are less mathematical, and George Simon Ohm is one of those who used mathematics. For this, he was an outcast, and died a poor man.

But today, George Simon Ohm could proudly say that he was, and is right all along.

For more about our Engineering Hero, please refer to these free sites:

FREE OHM'S LAW TUTORIALS



GEORGE SIMON OHM BIOGRAPHY 1
GEORGE SIMON OHM BIOGRAPHY 2
OHM'S LAW EXPERIMENTS
THE OHM'S LAW EXPLAINED

Other Interesting Links
Ohm's Law, Electrical Math and Voltage Drop Calculations
Ohm's Law Experiment Kit
T-Shirt - Ohm's Law

PROTECTIVE RELAYING AND REFERENCES


Protective relaying is one of the most important and highly technical fields in electrical engineering. It is so critical, since it involves the protection of our power system to abnormal conditions that might be subjected to our power equipments and apparatus. It is practically, system protection.

Our power system, composed of our power equipment, transformers, generators, and transmission lines cost a fortune to construct and maintain. It is not rare to see generating plants, and power substations to cost in millions of dollars. Through an intricate manner, a device is used to act as an eye and brain in the protection system. They are called protective relays.

In basic power system set up, power apparatus, like the generators and power transformers may be subject to abnormal conditions like fault. They might experience over current and over voltages. They are usually accompanied with protective equipment like power circuit breakers. But these breakers merely react to what information they are fed with.

Protective relays acts as the “eye” and brain to the muscle of the circuit breakers. These relays therefore must be set and coordinated with, to ensure smooth, reliable, and correct power system protection.

Below are three of the more popular references in basic protective relaying. This is very useful for upstart relay engineers and students as well who are interested in protective relaying. As a career, relay engineer is a good one, as it is one of the highly technical ones.


other references that may interest you:

Just always remember, Protective Relaying is one of the major keys in  System Protection.

Sebastian Ziani de Ferranti - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING HERO

Earlier on, we discussed a phenomenon called the Ferranti Effect. This is a rise in voltage occurring at the receiving end of a long transmission line, relative to the voltage at the sending end. This honor belongs to a British electrical engineer who promoted the installation of large electrical generating stations and alternating-current distribution networks in England.
This electrical effect was named after Sabastian Ziani de Ferranti (1864-1930), who in 1887 became the chief engineer for London Electric Supply Corporation (LESCo), responsible for the design of their power station at Deptford, England.

What led to this discovery was during the early days of Ferranti’s work at the Deptford Power Station, an anomaly was experienced when transmission line voltages remote from the generator rose to levels that damaged equipment. Intuition led engineers and operators of the time to think that voltage would decay over long distances, but this turned out to be true only when the line is loaded.

For more about our Electrical Engineering Hero, below are references:

FERRANTI EFFECT

Ferranti Effect is an electrical engineering phenomenon, wherein there is a rise in voltage occurring at the end of a long transmission line when its load is disconnected. We usually observed that the sending voltage is greater than the receiving end voltage. From the equation:
Vs = Vr + (current x impedance), the receiving voltage is lower since it is the difference of the Voltage Sending and the voltage drop.

The operative words here are, long transmission lines and disconnected load. Under no load conditions, theoretically, Vs=Vr.  Furthermore, one classification of transmission lines is according to its length or circuit km. In long transmission lines, you are going to take into consideration the effect of capacitance and the charging current of the lines.

Due to the voltage drop across the line inductance (due to charging current) being in phase with the sending end voltages, capacitance and inductance is responsible to produce this phenomenon.

For more about the Ferranti Effect, you may click on these free links/pdf
LINK 1
LINK 2
Radiation effects on power transistors (Ferranti semiconductors ; 1)

PLS POLE PLS CADD TUTORIALS CREATING STEEL POLE MODEL

Hello. In this blog, we will try to create a steel pole model, using the PLS Pole software of Power Lines System. This created pole will practically be part of your data bank that can be later used to create structures. These structures on the other hand can be used in PLS CADD for analysis. In itself, the PLS pole could analyze the integrity and strength of both the structures and the pole. 

First things first is to build up your data base of components. For starters, I hope this helps. 

Click on the links for the .doc files.
CLICK ==> HERE

                        

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PLS CADD AND PLS POLES TUTORIAL

folk, please bear on the admin on the delay of the turorials.
soon the tutorials will start so visit the site from time to time.
in the mean time, please leave a comment on what you want to know regarding pls software so that it will be featured on this site

BLOG ADVISORY

Starting today, October 2, 2010, changes will be made on this blog site. Aside from Transmission and distribution lines topics, the following topics will also be found:

Substation Design
Relaying
General Engineering
All Electrical Engineering and Electronics topics.
Questions are also encouraged
you may email your queries here:
-team